Christians & Critical Theory

Karl Barth, a theologian from a previous generation was once believed to have said that he advised young theologians to, “take your Bible and take your newspaper, and read both. But interpret newspapers from your Bible.” While I disagree with Barth on a number of other topics, I do agree with him fervently on that quote. Christians are to use their Bible to interpret the world around them, not the other way around. As the revealed Word of God, the Bible alone has the final word on all issues. As it speaks so we believe. And as we attempt to faithfully live out our lives in an ever-changing sea of moral uncertainty, the Christian must firmly resolve to anchor themselves in the unchanging pages of Scripture.

Perhaps the most important philosophy undergirding much of the modern secular Social Justice movements is what is called Critical Theory. I confess that I feel as though I have been on a journey over the last year especially educating myself on this topic. Critical Theory seems to influence everything from Black Lives Matter to Cancel Culture, from University Safe Spaces to calls for Social Justice. What is this movement, and is it Biblical?

I recently picked up a book by Helen Pluckrose and James Lindsay called Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender and Identity – and Why This Harms Everybody. I’m still working through the book, but it has provided such accessible insight into the development of Critical Theory and what it means for us today. What I want to do in this post is share a short synopsis of their framework in order to help my readers get a basis to understand what we’re referring to with Critical Theory. And then I’ll offer a few Christian reflections afterwards.

A Review of Their Framework

Pluckrose and Lindsay trace the roots of Activist Critical Theory back to the development of Postmodernism in the 60’s and up through the late 90s. In their opinion, Critical Theory is nothing more than an activated (meaning out from the world of philosophy and into the world of activism) evolution of Postmodernism. Postmodernism was largely a rejection of its predecessor modernism. Modernism succinctly stated was, “the profound cultural transformation which saw the rise of representative democracy, the age of science, the supersedence of reason over superstition, and the establishment of individual liberties to live according to one’s values (p. 22).” In other words, by these author’s perspective, Modernism largely laid the framework for our modern Western society’s values & ideals. Postmodernism’s begins with a skepticism and ultimate rejection of these values and ideals. Postmodernism is skeptical of all truth claims and believes instead that truth is relative. By rejecting all major claims to truth (including Science), postmodernism laid the groundwork to question the validity of every social institution.

Pluckrose and Lindsay lay out the following principles and themes to understand the heart of Postmodernism and therefore the heart of its current activated state, Critical Theory. [Note: what follows is my best attempt at succinctly summarizing their framework.]

Principle 1: The Knowledge Principle: Within this principle postmodernism doubts all claims of objective truth. Anyone who claims to know truth must admit that they are culturally bound and dependent on corrupted biased reasoning. Even the scientific method should be called into question since it was developed by cultural-bound individuals and does not equally represent the full variety of the world’s ways of discovering truth. This is why the Smithsonian recently posted (and then quickly took down) a full section on their website explaining how the scientific method is oppressive and a symbol of whiteness (a picture of the Smithsonian’s original post can be seen here).

Principle 2: The Political Principle: Postmodernism is intensely interested in the way power is held, particularly “systems” of power. “Power decides not only what is factually correct but also what is morally good – power implies domination, which is bad, whereas subjugation implies oppression (p. 36)”. Those with power have either intentionally or inadvertently organized the Earthly systems that exist to benefit themselves (systemic injustice). Once again, science and the use of logic and reason are “systems” developed by powerful men that unfairly oppress those outside that category.

Theme 1: The Blurring of Boundaries: Since we ultimately cannot really know objective truth, almost every socially significant category must be called into question: objectivity & subjectivity, man and animal, man and woman, health and sickness. By intentionally blurring the lines that once made these meaningful categories, postmodernism is able to “disrupt the systems of power that might exist across them (p. 39).”

Theme 2: The Power of Language: Postmodernism sees language as culturally biased and thus attempts to deconstruct words themselves. Words no longer mean what words once meant. Words are loaded with such baggage and hidden meaning to the point that no objective statement can actually be made at all. Since words can cause oppression, the words themselves must be deconstructed entirely. It is this ‘power of language’ that largely lies underneath such expansive conversation around things like microagressions, safe spaces, and cancel culture especially at the University level.

Theme 3: Cultural Relativism: Postmodernism insists that there is not any one culture that can be said to be better than any other. There are no norms or practices which should be advantaged or considered excellent above and beyond any other culture’s norms. of particular importance is that those from within the dominant culture are unable to make any legitimate claim of critique upon any other culture since it is, “ignorant or dismissive of the realities of oppression (p.41).”

Theme 4: The Loss of the Individual & the Universal: Just as the notion of an individual is a myth since the individual is a product of culturally constructed language and norms, so is the universal (any metanarrative or universal ethic about humanity) a myth . Instead, postmodernism focuses on local group identity. “Applied Postmodern Theory (Critical Theory) tends to regard mainstream liberalism as complacent, naive, or indifferent about the deeply engrained prejudices, assumptions, and biases that limit constrain people with marginalized identities (p. 61).” Hence the origin of Identity Politics and Intersectionality (the idea that a person belonging to more than one oppressed group experiences oppression in both a cumulative and unique manner). It may be helpful to consider the irony between theme 4 and theme 1 at this point.

An Initial Commentary

Thus far I have only summarized the larger framework of Pluckrose and Linsday’s book. As I move towards providing a bit of Christian commentary it should not be difficult to notice how these underpinnings of postmodernism are so clearly seen in our modern Social Justice movements. That is no way to say that every individual idea within these social justice movements is false, it is simply to say that the framework above gives clear explanation to the methods and beliefs of some of the modern Social Justice Movements such as Black Lives Matter and LGBTQ+.

I believe it is fairly obvious that each of the themes and principles above are incompatible with a Biblical worldview. As it pertains to the Knowledge Principle, the Christian does indeed hold to a fixed and clear metanarrative as revealed to us in scripture. The Bible reveals the great framework of the human experience: Creation, Fall, Redemption, Restoration. This larger storyline of Redemptive History is not culturally naive nor unclear. Rather it is God’s revealed truth as clearly communicated through the Bible.

As to the Political Principle, the Christian does not and cannot reject all Earthly systems. Certainly we recognize the entry of sin into our world as capable and historically able to impact systems (one need only think of the legalization and normalization of abortion in our country). But not every system is inherently oppressive. The Church is a system which is inherently beautiful and good. The Church’s structure of leadership where qualified men serve as Elders is not oppressive but rather is beautiful and godly. Science, and the scientific method, is a system which is not oppressive nor culturally flawed. Christians embrace science and celebrate our ability to study all of God’s creation.

As pertaining to the four themes listed above, they as well do not hold up to the Biblical revelation. There is a clear distinction between man and animal, between male and female (Theme 1). God has revealed Himself through written words in a book that we call the Bible. Those words are clearly communicated and have actual meaning (Theme 2). There is such thing as definable objective right and wrong. Cultures that embrace immoral activity are wrong by God’s standard and must be changed else find themselves underneath the wrath of God (Theme 3). The individual and the universal both matter to God. Every individual is made uniquely in the image of God. Plus the great universal truth of Christ’s death and resurrection and his current rule and reign is a fixed truth (Theme 4).

What is the point of all this? My great desire is for our Church to be equipped to think about our times with clear Biblical focus. Many of the ideas our culture takes for granted are not Biblical in their nature at all, but rather are the fruit of postmodernism. The Christian must take back their standard of truth (the Bible) and be unafraid to say to the Critical Theorists, “Your worldview does not make sense.” The current trajectory of Critical Theory and our Modern Social Justice Movements cannot and will not sustain themselves because they are self-contradictory. A fascinating example of this is the current Transgender Social Movement which in its nature threatens to undo every gain of the Feminist movement of the last 75+ years.

But here is the most important point, at its very best moments Critical Theory is simply borrowing from the clearly revealed truths of the Bible. Critical Theory rejects the idea of any grand metanarrative yet demands justice is important, demands that oppression is bad, and that every life is worthy of dignity and honor and value. In these moments Critical Theory is not standing on their own foundation (the principles and themes above), rather they are borrowing from the Christian’s foundation. It is the Christian that has an actual basis to understand justice (Biblical Justice) because we have the unchanging standard of God’s Word that does not vary from culture to culture. It is the Christian’s foundation that provides a purpose for life whereby activism becomes meaningful. (Why fight for anything if no grand metanarrative exists? Why have a purpose, if your purpose is ultimately meaningless?) Rather it is the Biblical worldview that provides the basis and rational for living in a way that desires to see the world more just, more loving, more rid of sin. It is even the Biblical worldview that provides a rational basis for ‘considering others as greater than yourself‘ and living with such a humility that one can rightly see their own cultural bias and the beauty of cultures distinct from their own, while at the same time condemning all sin no matter what culture it is found in. The Christian can and must stand confidently on the Biblical worldview and reject the framework of Critical Theory when it contradicts God’s Word.

Comments 20
  1. Raef god bless you, what a much and often needed educational enlightenment of our struggles with today’s politics and cultural revolution. Thank you this was well put and straight to the point with so many factual and poignant facts !! Thank you so much for this tool that we Christians must add to our defense and offense. I am frustrated and grieved with our political institutions and revolution within our society. Prayer is our biggest weapon that we must use daily incessantly to petition our savior and father for resolution reprieve and justice. God bless you my brother good job.

  2. Thank you pastor. I have talked to many that believe there is more going today than just politics and elections. It feels as though there is a great battle for the soul of our country and our future and b that God is calling many be across the country to rise up and defend what He has blessed us with. Will we follow Him or to he World?

  3. You are able to take some very complex subject matter and break it down clearly For me to understand, thankyou

  4. Thanks for the clarity of Critical Theory and the Bible. You exposed the contradiction in many of there Principles. Relivitism I know is the position that there is no Objective Truth only subjective opinion.

  5. A very informative article. I especially like the part that claims that the values of Critical Theory are actually the foundation of Christianity:

    “But here is the most important point, at its very best moments Critical Theory is simply borrowing from the clearly revealed truths of the Bible.”
    (Love the simplicity of that statement.)

  6. Wow! Thank you for breaking this down into an understandable framework. I have been saying the exact same thing about the trans movement. My generation said girls can do anything. This generation thinks if you don’t want to do girly things, you must be a boy – a giant step backwards. We are having more and more conversations in our family about how God is in charge, come what may, if we cling to His word and strive to do His work, we will be better off in the long run. Praise God for His truths found in the scriptures. We’d be lost without them.

  7. Very well written, easy to understand and critical for the believers to spread the message of Truth
    by their actions, they speak louder than words. We are living in a culture of “self”. Mobile phones,
    Email, Instagram, video games, etc. Family becoming extinct.Covid has magnified the problem.
    Our churches are becoming part of the world. Thank you for this very meaningful message.
    If only, “They will know we are Christians by our Love,” Christ’s message for broken world.

  8. Raef, back in May I had a member from another church come to me and tell me that his church was putting into play Critical Race Theory or as you put it Critical Theory. It upset him so much because his parents were immigrants and came America to look for the American dream. He and his wife were founding members of their church and was devastated when the church brought this subject to light and told the church members they needed to change with the times and repent for their sins against the oppressed. I told him I would look into it and wrote a blog on it back in August We must base our ways of life, love, joy, peace and the acceptance of all mankind through the teachings of our Lord and Savior and His Word. We must not give into these false teachings are trying to push but always rely and follow God’s teachings. Great article, thanks you for God’s use of your talents and speaking the truth. We must be diligent and not let false teachings like these destroy our churches.

  9. awesome article. It really makes me wonder if the Bible was referring to the socialist philosophy of Karl Marx as the one world religion that will someday influence everybody, and with communism being the one world government.

  10. An excellent piece. This cultural war is raging with particular ferosity in the depraved Republic of Ireland which has in a series of referendums, destroyed the meaning of marriage, legalised the murder of the child in the womb, and removed reference to blasphemy from the Constitution. One gratifying development is the collaboration of committed Roman Catholics with Evangelical Protestants and a growth in an understanding of the Catholic Church as not a particular denomination but rather the people of God (of whatever Christian denomination) who faithfully seek to follow the word of God and become more Christ-like in thought, word, and deed.

  11. Good review of the nihilism at the root of most post-modern catastrophes. If you can explain this to your parishioners, it will save them and their children a world of trouble. If enough people understand it, it will save the world a lot of trouble.

  12. I am so happy to see someone addressing this. The church fell asleep waiting for the “sweet by and by” and now we need to wake up, stand up, and take back what was freely given during its slumber. Just remember, if you come into agreement with this Critical theory, you are in agreement with the world of darkness. Be bold, be courageous and stand in agreement with light to expose the darkness!

  13. Michael…, I too was impressed with Mr. Chenery’s clear but academic response to the “Critical Theory” we are all going to have to deal with. Then I saw your response, and it saved me the mental energy (that I try to not waste on Critical Theories) until I am forced to have to contend with it. (Berkeley helped me separate some of that.)
    We are being confronted with the sounds of “…burn it all down.” My answer to applying God’s love in this situation is “over my dead body.” Sooner or later all the science in the world melts down to WHO ARE WE, WHERE ARE WE GOING AND HOW DO WE GET THERE? I want to have an honest conversation about the facts of life and death, or no conversation at all.
    For parishioners who are also as impatient as I, it would be a gift if they even read this treatise down to your statement. THAT little study on Nihilism might make at least TWO, ready to confront those who come with a torch.
    Thanks for writing. ~FDW

  14. I enjoyed your exposition on Critical Theory. Personally, I think it goes back further than the ’60’s, in fact to the 1930’s “Frankfurt School” of disaffected Marxists inventing ways to destroy civilization’s “systems” of all kinds, not just capitalism.
    Apart from the intellectual premises of the thought process of its adherents, I believe one also has to come to grips with the animating force behind disparate behaviors like toppling historical statues, burning churches, looting, burning stores, and invading restaurants. Are the people responsible for these behaviors “Critical Theory” acolytes? I don’t think so — at least that’s not what’s in their mind in the moment. What animates them is what I’ve come to call “Cultural Marxism” whose hallmark is an unbridled rage against those they perceive as having historical advantages over them which the privileged alone enjoy — the white male, straight, cisgender, family man of faith. This is the group that oppresses all other identity groups, and so they, and all the systems and ideals and history they have created, must be destroyed. In this Marxism, the identity group has taken the place of the economic class.

  15. One does not need critical theory to see that certain systems (voting, legislative, banking, educational, etc.) in the US have historically been stacked heavily in favor of, as one earlier commenter put it, white, straight, cisgender family men of the Christian Protestant faith. If one is arguing against critical theory because one is in denial of the historical facts that demonstrate how much more favored some have been since the inception of the Republic, then you have to wonder why. To be clear, I think I understand why the author is arguing against this fascinating intellectual body of thought, but I don’t know for certain.

    It is not as if being politically conservative or capitalist is inherently more Christian than being politically liberal or socialist. Yes, put very simplistically, Marxist thought traditionally denies the existence of God: Christianity and other religions are considered opiate for the masses (Marxism, in a sense, replaces Jesus with the proletariat in its secular “eschatology,” which I as a fellow Jesus follower obviously don’t subscribe to)—this is how I understand classic Marxism. Yet, there are self-professed Christian socialists, who question how capitalist societies are organized such that the economic burdens are borne chiefly by the least of these and who fight against the injustices they identify. Are Christian Marxists not Christians? Or are just more politically conservative Christian people the true(r) believers? Maybe I’m off base, but this what I hear strongly implied by this post (and some similar posts) in this blog, as well as in some related episodes of the accompanying The Christian Optimist podcast (and the Joel Settecase podcast, on which the author is a frequent guest).

    Many people will read this post and not even engage in critical theory, dismissing it as highly detrimental to their faith. The author is not saying you not engage it, so that is positive. But he tends to highlight its dangers. Maybe some of it would be unhelpful, but maybe it could help some Christ followers sharpen their faith. The Bible is our primary text, indeed, but philosophical writings from a wide spectrum of thinkers have helped me on my walk. Without buying it whole, aspects of critical theory have been helpful to me in rethinking race, class, gender, and other biases I’ve uncritically held in the past. More broadly speaking, postmodernism has been a bogeyman for Christians, but if you don’t engage it, how can you argue against it and no longer be intimidated by it? Dismissing it as “bad” seems unwise. Some like Terry Eagleton have engaged postmodern thought and pointed out its excesses, partly from a Christian framework, while acknowledging its usefulness in his faith and politics, which for him are intimately intertwined.

  16. Hi Raef,
    Thank you for laying that out in such a clear manner. This does not seem to be the official point of view from Park. There are many other leaders (Pastors, Elders) at Park that openly embrace CRT both from the pulpit and in articles published on Park and Park related (Black Lives Sacred). I have spoken to several of these people to address my concerns over this non-biblical point of view and idolatry. Those concerns were dismissed each time. Are you in the minority at Park regarding your thoughts?

    Keep the faith brother!

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